ArrayList is implemented as a resizable array. As more elements are added to ArrayList, its size is increased dynamically. It’s elements can be accessed directly by using the get and set methods, since ArrayList is essentially an array.
LinkedList is implemented as a double linked list. Its performance on add and remove is better than Arraylist, but worse on get and set methods.
Vector can grow as necessary to accommodate new values. You don’t have to worry about setting it to a specific size upon creation; it shrinks and grows automatically when necessary.
Vector is similar with ArrayList, but it is synchronized.
ArrayList is a better choice if your program is thread-safe. Vector and ArrayList require more space as more elements are added. Vector each time doubles its array size, while ArrayList grow 50% of its size each time. LinkedList, however, also implements Queue interface which adds more methods than ArrayList and Vector, such as offer(), peek(), poll(), etc
HashSet vs. TreeSet vs. LinkedHashSet
HashSet is Implemented using a hash table. Elements are not ordered. The add, remove, and contains methods have constant time complexity O(1).
TreeSet is implemented using a tree structure(red-black tree in algorithm book). The elements in a set are sorted, but the add, remove, and contains methods has time complexity of O(log (n)). It offers several methods to deal with the ordered set like first(), last(), headSet(), tailSet(), etc.
LinkedHashSet is between HashSet and TreeSet. It is implemented as a hash table with a linked list running through it, so it provides the order of insertion. The time complexity of basic methods is O(1)